Dengue virus (DV) infection is the most common mosquito-born viral disease of public health significance. Though most patients only suffer from flu-like symptoms, a small group of patients experiences more severe forms of the disease. The viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), a secreted protein correlating with viremia, is a key element used for dengue diagnosis with potential implications in severe dengue prognosis. Capture-ELISAs for the early detection of the NS1 protein in the sera during the acute febrile stage are commonly used in routine by diagnostic laboratories. In this study, the detection of NS1 protein in DV-infected material was assessed by an alternative method combining a single NS1-directed monoclonal antibody and the SELDI-TOF/MS technology. According to the epitope mapping, the antibodies used are mainly directed against an immuno-dominant peptide located on the C-terminal part of the protein. The NS1 SELDI-TOF assay is specific, has a sensitivity level close to capture-ELISAs and is potentially useful for a coupled serotyping/detection assay or for the detection of subtle post-translational modifications on the protein.