A serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (UAD) assay for 13 serotypes included in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recently reported as a useful diagnostic tool for pneumococcal pneumonia. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the UAD in HIV-infected South African adults. Urine specimens from a well-defined cohort of HIV-infected South African adults with pneumonia were evaluated retrospectively in the UAD assay. Pneumonia was considered pneumococcal if either sputum Gram stain, sputum culture, blood culture, or the immunochromatographic (ICT) BinaxNow S. pneumoniae test (composite diagnostic) was positive. Among 235 enrolled pneumonia patients, the UAD assay was more frequently positive (104 [44.3%]) than the composite diagnostic (71 [30.2%]; P < 0.001) and increased the pneumococcal etiology from 30.2% by an additional 22.6% to 52.8%. The UAD assay detected more pneumococcal etiologies (45.0%) than the serotype-independent ICT (23.4%, P < 0.001). UAD identified 6/7 patients with PCV13 serotype bacteremia without misclassification of bacteremia episodes due to non-PCV13 serotypes. UAD was positive for 5.1% of asymptomatic HIV-infected persons, with higher rates among those with nasopharyngeal carriage. Concordance between serotypes identified by UAD and by Quellung reaction and PCR serotyping was 70/86 (81.4%). UAD identified the dominant serotype in multiple serotype carriage. This study confirms the utility of the UAD assay for HIV-infected adults comparing favorably with other diagnostic tests. A highly valent UAD may become a new standard for detection of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. Prior to PCV introduction, at least 53% of pneumonia cases were due to pneumococci in HIV-infected South African adults.